Merit Network
Can't find what you're looking for? Search the Mail Archives.
  About Merit   Services   Network   Resources & Support   Network Research   News   Events   Home

Discussion Communities: Merit Network Email List Archives

North American Network Operators Group

Date Prev | Date Next | Date Index | Thread Index | Author Index | Historical

Regarding global BGP community values

  • From: Aleksi Suhonen
  • Date: Thu Oct 07 06:26:05 1999

Hello,

I've also come to think that there should be global communities
for the basic purposes that most autonomous systems have built
their own communities for. My approach is probably a little
different to those of the other contributers to this discussion.

Here is a sketch of the new well-known communities I have come
up with:

0xFFFn:arg

where n designates a function and arg designates a parameter
to the function. These could be the functions:

 n=0    Never  announce to AS <arg>.
 n=1    May    announce to AS <arg>.
 n=2    If you announce to AS <arg>, prepend your own AS once.
 n=3    If you announce to AS <arg>, prepend your own AS twice.
  :
  :
 n=7    If you announce to AS <arg>, prepend your own AS six times.
 n=8    When announcing to AS <arg>, change this community to "local-AS"
 n=9    When announcing to AS <arg>, change this community to "no-advertise"
 n=10   When announcing to AS <arg>, change this community to "no-export"
 n=11   Reserved for brainstorming.
 n=12   Reserved for brainstorming.
 n=13   Reserved for brainstorming.
 n=14   Reserved for brainstorming.
 n=15   This contains the old well-known communities. Perhaps
        this could also double as "set local preference to <arg>?"

0xFFF0 is 65520, so 0xFFFn is 65520+n. Now I'm not saying these
are all useful. I for one don't like to see anyone prepend more
than three times and setting "no-advertise" at a distant location
can also have quite nasty consequences. They may still have use
in some special circumstances.

Further brainstorming: an arg of 0 could be interpreted as "all
transits" and 65535 as "all peers." If these special cases were
to be hard coded into the BGP implementation, then there should
be a way to mark sessions as transit/peering/other. If on the
other hand support for these communities would be simply via
auto-generated route-maps, you would only have to tell the
generator the type of the session, and since the data for the
generator would most probably come from a database of some kind
the generator would get the type from there automagically.

These communities should be able to travel through multiple
autonomous systems. They should be usable to influence not only
your transits' transits' routing decisions, but your transits'
peers', your transits' transits' peers', your transits' transits'
transits' peers' and so on. Getting all involved parties to
turn on send-community on all involved BGP sessions is of course
a challenge, but a one that has already been overcome with the
existing "transit provider proprietary" communities where needed.


Randy Bush pointed out an underlying problem with trusting
preference hints from distant autonomous systems. I would like
to argue the case against him and for letting everyone influence
one's routing decisions.

Suppose I have a transit T, a peer P, a customer C and a distant
third party D. Suppose also that D has contractual agreements
that result in me hearing D's routes from all of T, P and C.
By default I would prefer D's routes heard from C. However, if
D wishes me to use T or P to reach D instead, D can do so without
the use of any communities. D can lower the preference of a path
through P or C by arranging it so that I don't hear D from P or C,
and D can increase the preference of a path by making me hear D's
routes as more specifics from there.

Both of these practises I frown upon. I would therefore see that
it would be in my best interest to let D influence my routing
decisions directly instead of littering my routing table or
eating at the redundancy between my customers and D. Furthermore
it should be in D's best interest not to give hints to use a bad
path between D and me.

If D would choose to maliciously abuse my trust (whether via
the kludges or via the preference hints presented) I can always
work to override or filter the bad routes and try to contact D's
upstreams or D directly to resolve the issue.


Alex Bligh noted that main stream IOS has insufficient means of
manipulating communities. The bleeding edge versions have had
methods for removing only some communities while preserving others
for a good time now. I do agree though that routing policies can
often be much more complicated than what is implementable with
route-maps no matter how modern.

--
	Aleksi Suhonen



Here is a sample shell script that does simple automagic. If anyone
would use it, it would need to be modified to implement one's own
routing policy too. It is included only as an example and proof of
concept. I have not tested that what it produces actually works.


#!/bin/sh
# Usage: this-program my-as their-as their-ip comm-list session-type
# comm-list: index of first available "ip community-list"
# session-type: (T)ransit (P)eer (C)ustomer

my_as=$1
their_as=$2
their_ip=$3
comm_deny=$4
comm_pre1=`echo 1+$4|bc`
comm_pre2=`echo 2+$4|bc`
comm_pre3=`echo 3+$4|bc`
comm_pre4=`echo 4+$4|bc`
comm_pre5=`echo 5+$4|bc`
comm_pre6=`echo 6+$4|bc`
comm_loas=`echo 7+$4|bc`
comm_noad=`echo 8+$4|bc`
comm_noex=`echo 9+$4|bc`

# these can be reused for all sessions
comm_local_pref_80=1
comm_local_pref_90=2
comm_local_pref_110=3
comm_remove=4
# set these to your values
transit_route_tag=${my_as}:666
peer_route_tag=${my_as}:555
customer_route_tag=${my_as}:777
route_map_name_prefix=axu-${their_as}

case $5 in
    T*)
        announce_community=$customer_route_tag
        denounce_community="$transit_route_tag $peer_route_tag"
        tag_community=$transit_route_tag
	default_preference=90
	their_class=0
    ;;
    P*)
        announce_community=$customer_route_tag
        denounce_community="$transit_route_tag $peer_route_tag"
        tag_community=$peer_route_tag
	default_preference=100
	their_class=65535
    ;;
    *)
        announce_community="$transit_route_tag $peer_route_tag $customer_route_t
ag"
        denounce_community=""
        tag_community=$customer_route_tag
	default_preference=101
	their_class=65534
    ;;
esac

denounce_community="$denounce_community 65520:${their_as} 65520:${their_class}"

cat <<EOF
! reused community-lists
ip community-list $comm_local_pref_80 deny 65535:100
ip community-list $comm_local_pref_80 permit 65535:80
ip community-list $comm_local_pref_90 deny 65535:100
ip community-list $comm_local_pref_90 permit 65535:90
ip community-list $comm_local_pref_110 deny 65535:100
ip community-list $comm_local_pref_110 permit 65535:110
ip community-list $comm_remove permit 65535:80 65535:90 65535:100 65535:110
ip community-list $comm_remove permit $transit_route_tag $peer_route_tag
ip community-list $comm_remove permit $customer_route_tag

! new community-lists
ip community-list $comm_deny permit $denounce_community
ip community-list $comm_pre1 permit 65522:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_pre1 permit 65522:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_pre2 permit 65523:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_pre2 permit 65523:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_pre3 permit 65524:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_pre3 permit 65524:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_pre4 permit 65525:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_pre4 permit 65525:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_pre5 permit 65526:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_pre5 permit 65526:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_pre6 permit 65527:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_pre6 permit 65527:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_loas permit 65528:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_loas permit 65528:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_noad permit 65529:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_noad permit 65529:${their_class}
ip community-list $comm_noex permit 65530:${their_as}
ip community-list $comm_noex permit 65530:${their_class}

route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-in permit 10
 match community $comm_local_pref_80
 set local-preference 80
 set comm-list $comm_remove delete
 set community $tag_community additive
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-in permit 20
 match community $comm_local_pref_90
 set local-preference 90
 set comm-list $comm_remove delete
 set community $tag_community additive
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-in permit 30
 match community $comm_local_pref_110
 set local-preference 110
 set comm-list $comm_remove delete
 set community $tag_community additive
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-in permit 40
 set local-preference $default_preference
 set comm-list $comm_remove delete
 set community $tag_community additive
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out deny 10
 match community $comm_deny
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 20
 match community $comm_pre1
 set as-path prepend ${my_as}
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 30
 match community $comm_pre2
 set as-path prepend ${my_as} ${my_as}
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 40
 match community $comm_pre3
 set as-path prepend ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as}
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 50
 match community $comm_pre4
 set as-path prepend ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as}
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 60
 match community $comm_pre5
 set as-path prepend ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as}
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 70
 match community $comm_pre6
 set as-path prepend ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as} ${my_as}
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 80
 match community $comm_loas
 set comm-list $comm_loas delete
 set community local-AS additive
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 90
 match community $comm_noad
 set comm-list $comm_noad delete
 set community no-advertise additive
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 100
 match community $comm_noex
 set comm-list $comm_noex delete
 set community no-export additive
!
route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out permit 110

router bgp ${my_as}
 neighbor ${their_ip} remote-as ${their_as}
 neighbor ${their_ip} next-hop-self
 neighbor ${their_ip} send-community
 neighbor ${their_ip} remove-private-AS
 neighbor ${their_ip} route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-in in
 neighbor ${their_ip} route-map ${route_map_name_prefix}-out out
EOF






Discussion Communities


About Merit | Services | Network | Resources & Support | Network Research
News | Events | Contact | Site Map | Merit Network Home


Merit Network, Inc.